2014年职称英语《卫生类》教材补全短文文章练习二

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  Chest Compressions: Most Important of CPR
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR, can save the life of someone whose heart has stopped. The condition is called cardiac arrest2. The heart stops pumping blood. The person stops breathing. Without lifesaving measures, the brain starts to die within four to six minutes. CPR combines breathing into the victim’s mouth and repeated presses on the chest.____1____
However, a new Japanese study questions the usefulness of mouth-to-mouth breathing. The study was published in the British medical magazine, The Lancet3. Doctors in Tokyo led the research. It examined more than four thousand people who had suffered cardiac arrest. In all the cases, witnesses saw the event happen.
More than one thousand of the victims received some kind of medical assistance from witnesses. Seven hundred and twelve received CPR. Four hundred and thirty-nine received chest presses only.____2____The researchers say any kind of CPR improved chances of the patient’s survival. But, they said those people treatpd with only chest presses suffered less brain damage. Twenty-two percent survived with good brain ability.____3____
The American Heart Association4 changed its guidelines for CPR chest presses in 2005.____4____Gordon Ewy is a heart doctor at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson. He wrote a report that appeared with the study. Doctor Ewy thinks the CPR guidelines should be changed again. He said the heart association should remove rescue breaths from the guidelines. He argues that more witnesses to cardiac arrests would provide treatment if rescue breaths are not a part of CPR. He says this would save lives.____5____
Cardiac arrest kills more than 300,000 people in the United States every year. The American Heart Association says about ninety-five percent of victims die before they get to a medical center.
  词汇:
  chest /t?est/ n.胸,胸廓
compression /k?m'pre?(?)n/ n.压迫;加压
pump /p?mp/ n.泵;vt.压出
lifesaving /'la?f,se?v??/ adj.救生的;n.救生(法)
press /pres/ vt. &n.压,按
Tokyo /'t?ukj?u; -ki?u; 't?:kj?:/ n.东京(日本)
witness /'w?tn?s/ n.目击者,证人川.见证,作证
rescue /'reskju?/ vt. &n.救援,营救
guideline /'ga?dla?n/n. 方针,准则
  注释:
  1.CPR (cardiopulmanory resuscitation):心肺复苏(术)
2.cardiac /'kɑ?d??k/ arrest ( = heart arrest):心动停止,心搏停止
3.The Lancet《柳叶刀》(英国一家外科学杂志的名称,lancet原义是一种外科手术刀的名称)
4.American Heart Association (AHA):美国心脏协会
  练习:
  A. So far, we have not known exactly yet whether mouth-to-mouth breathing is really useless in CPR.
B. Only ten percent of the victims treated with traditional CPR survived with good brain ability.
C. CPR keeps blood and oxygen flowing to the heart and brain.
D. His studies show that many people do not want to perform mouth-to-mouth breathing on a stranger for fear of getting a disease.
E. It said people should increase the number of chest presses from fifteen to thirty for every two breaths given.
F. No mouth-to-mouth rescue breaths were given to them.
  答案与题解:
  1.C本空白处的前一句是介绍CPR是什么,而六个选项中,C项也是介绍CPR的,因此放在一起是恰当的。
2.F本空白处的前一句说“439位病人仅仅接受了胸腔按压”,而第一段说过,“CPR包括胸部按压和口对口呼吸”,可见F项说“没做口对口呼吸的急救措施”是补充说明前一句的。
3.B本空白处的前面两句说到,只用胸部按压抢救过来的人大脑受损比较小,存活下来的人中有22%大脑功能良好,接下来这一句肯定是要与传统的两种方法结合的抢救模式作对比,选项B正好是这样的内容。
4.E本空白处的前一句是说美国心脏协会于2005年修改了CPR中胸部按压的指导准则,空白处的后面又没有提到如何修改,选项E正好填补了这个内容。 而且还要注意,选项E中的It said只能适用于American Heart Association,其他空白处均不合适。
5.D这一段都是叙述心脏疾病医生Gordon Ewy的观点,在其他地方都没有提到他,选项D 实际上已经为我们提供了答题的线索,内容也能前后衔接。
译文:胸腔压迫:最重要的心肺复苏术
心肺复苏术,即CPR,可以挽救心脏已经停止跳动的人的生命。这种情况被称为心搏停止。心脏停止供血。人停止呼吸。如果不采用急救的方法,大脑将在四到 六分钟内死亡。心肺复苏术使呼吸的气流送入遇难者的口腔,并不停地按压胸腔。它使血液和氧气源源不断地进入心脏和大脑。
然而,日本一项新研究质疑这种嘴对嘴呼吸进行救助的有效性。该研究发表于英国医学杂志,《柳叶刀》,由东京的外壳医生牵头。研究调查类4000余名曾遭遇过心搏停止的患者。在所有的这些病例中,均有人目击类事件发生的过程。
1000余名患者接受类来自于目击者的某种医疗救助。712名患者接受类心脏复苏术的救助。439名病人仅仅接受类胸腔按压,而未接受口对口的人工呼吸 救助。研究者说任何一种心脏复苏术都会增加患者生存下来的几率。但是,他们说,那些只被施与了胸腔挤压的患者遭受脑损伤更小。其中22%的人在大脑能力健 全的情况下生存了下来。而对于那些接受传统心肺复苏术并生存下来的病人来说,仅仅只有10%的人能保持正常的大脑能力。
美国心脏协会于 2005年修改类CPR胸部按压的指导准则。准则每经过两次人工呼吸,胸腔按压的次数应从15次增加为30次。Gordon Ewy是亚利桑那州图森医学院的心脏科医生。他根据这项研究写了一篇报告。他认为心肺复苏术指导准则应该被再次修改。他建议心脏协会应该把呼吸救助从指导 准则中删除。他说,如果心脏复苏术不包括人工呼吸,更多的事故见证人对胸搏停止者提供救助。这种办法能过挽救生命。他的研究表明,许多人出于害怕感染疾病 的顾虑,并不愿意对陌生人施与嘴对嘴的呼吸救助。
每年在美国有30余万人死于心搏停止。美国心脏协会称,大约有95%的人在被送至医疗中心前死去。

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